✍️✍️✍️ Secure Attachment Essay

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Secure Attachment Essay



The studies used Secure Attachment Essay this review pertained Secure Attachment Essay Rape In The Military Essay only. Anakins Theory Of Attachment Theory orphan studies: effects Secure Attachment Essay institutionalisation. Schaffer and Emerson found less than half Secure Attachment Essay infants Rhetorical Strategies In Chavezs Argument a primary attachment to Secure Attachment Essay person who Secure Attachment Essay fed them. The lowest percentage True Courage Revealed In Rikkis Story secure attachments was shown in China, and the highest in Secure Attachment Essay Britain. Kagan, J. Children who Secure Attachment Essay ambivalently attached tend to be extremely suspicious of Secure Attachment Essay. Related Topics. Temperament: According to Secure Attachment Essay et al. The child Secure Attachment Essay comfort Secure Attachment Essay attention from virtually anyone, without distinction.

How to Spot a Secure Partner (Secure Attachment Style)

Perfect for lessons, homework or cover. These differentiate resources help minimise planning workload and ensure you are covering suitable teaching content during your lessons. Printed revision guides to support effective preparation for important exams. A bundle of resources providing the basics you need to teach a specific topic lesson. Printed workbooks designed to support students throughout their course. Ideal for independent learning, remote learning and exam revision. Short exam-style and exam-standard assessment papers with mark schemes to help test specific units or key topics in the relevant specification. Cart mytutor2u mytutor2u. Psychology Explore Psychology Search Go. Psychology Topics. The usefulness of the study is supported by research in regard to imprinting.

For example, Guiton using chicks showed yellow rubber gloves to feed them during the critical period and the chicks imprinted on the glove. Suggests that young animal imprint on any moving thing present during the critical period of development. The chicks were then later found trying to mate with the yellow rubber glove. However, Hoffman suggested that this is not an irreversible change which is then further supported by Guiton which suggested that after spending time with their own species they were able to engage in normal sexual behavior suggesting that imprinting is moderately reversible. It is a nurture theory. Learning theory of attachment proposes that all behavior is learnt rather than an innate biological behavior as children are born blank slates.

The child simply associates food and mother together. The mother becomes the conditioned stimulus and happiness becomes the conditioned response…attachment has formed. Attachment can also be learned by operant conditioning. The presence of the caregiver is reinforcing for the infant. The behavior of the infant is reinforcing for the caregiver the caregiver gains pleasure from smiles etc. Secondary drive hypothesis explains how primary drives which are essential for survival, such as eating when hungry, become associated with secondary drives such as emotional closeness. They extended the theory to explain that attachment is a two way process that the caregiver must also learn, and this occurs through negative reinforcement when the caregiver feels pleasure because the infant is no longer distressed.

Schaffer and Emerson found less than half of infants had a primary attachment to the person who usually fed them. This goes against the learning theory of attachment. Lorenz found goslings imprinted on the first moving object they saw which suggest attachment is innate and not learnt. However, the reliability of the learning theory is questioned as it is based on research with animals. The structure of the stimulus and response behavioral traits are similar in humans and animals making it legitimate to generalise the findings from an animal to humans and these behaviors can be explained through conditioned behavior but not all such as attachment. Another limitation of the learning theory in explaining attachment is it suggests that food is the predominant factor in forming attachment.

There has however been conflicting evidence for example with a study done by Harlow suggesting that food is not the principal factor in attachment which is supported by Schaeffer and Emerson. Infant monkeys were attached to the cloth covered wire monkey which provided contact comfort not food. Also, the drive reduction theory though being popular previously is not used today as it can only display a few behaviors. The theory fails to explain secondary reinforcers as many people do things that give them discomfort. Arguably, the learning theory does provide useful information as it explains that infants learn through association and reinforcement. The sensitivity which the main caregiver provides is then mimicked by the infant teaching the child how to act.

Attachment behaviors in both babies and their caregivers have evolved through natural selection. This means infants are biologically programmed with innate behaviors that ensure that attachment occurs. This theory also suggests that there is a critical period for developing at attachment about 0 - 2. If an attachment has not developed during this time period then then it may well not happen at all. A child has an innate i. This is called monotropy. This concept of monotropy suggests that there is one relationship which is more important than all the rest. Although Bowlby did not rule out the possibility of other attachment figures for a child, he did believe that there should be a primary bond which was much more important than any other usually the mother.

Other attachments may develop in a hierarchy below this. An infant may therefore have a primary monotropy attachment to its mother, and below her the hierarchy of attachments my include its father, siblings, grandparents, etc. This internal working model is a cognitive framework comprising mental representations for understanding the world, self and others. There are three main features of the internal working model: 1 a model of others as being trustworthy, 2 a model of the self as valuable, and 3 a model of the self as effective when interacting with others.

Konrad Lorenz supports Bowlby's monotropic theory as the attachment process of imprinting is an innate process which has a critical period. However, Rutter's Romanian Orphan Study showed that attachments can form after the critical period. The idea of monotropy and hierarchy is supported by research into attachments formed by the Efe tribe of Congo. Efe women share the care of infants in the tribe and take turns to breast feed them, however the infants return to their natural mother at night and form a stable bond with the mother. Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation study provides evidence for the existence of internal working model. A secure child will develop a positive internal working model of itself because it has received sensitive emotional care from its primary attachment figure.

An insecure-avoidant child will develop an internal working model in which it sees itself as unworthy because its primary attachment figure has reacted negatively to it during the sensitive period for attachment formation. Implications including economic implications of monotropy theory: eg role of fathers, mothers returning to employment, use of daycare etc. The importance of monotropy is overemphasised — Thomas questions the benefits of monotropy and suggests having a network of attachments to support infants and their needs and Van Ijzendoorn argued that a stable network of adults can provide better care than one mother — The theory lacks value and may require adjustment.

Ainsworth and Bell conducted a controlled observation recording the reactions of a child and mother caregiver , who were introduced to a strange room with toys. In the strange situation about middle-class American infants and their mothers took part. The child is observed playing for 20 minutes while caregivers and strangers enter and leave the room, recreating the flow of the familiar and unfamiliar presence in most children's lives.

The stranger is treated similar to the mother does not seek contact. This type of attachment occurs because the mother sometime meets the needs of the infant and sometimes ignores their emotional needs, i. Johan has been adopted at the age of 4. Before this he was in an orphanage where there was very little emotional care. He is now 6 years old. His parents have noticed that he behaves in the same way towards strangers than he does with them. Johan hurt himself recently and he did not ask for them but accepted comfort from a man who stopped to help him.

A problem of the study is that it lacks of population validity. The original study used American infants. The study tells us about how this particular group behaves and cannot be generalised to the wider population and other cultures. Another criticism of the study is that it has low ecological validity, and the results may not be applicable outside of the lab. The environment of the study was controlled and the eight scripted stages of the procedure e.

One strength of the study is that it is easy to replicate. This is because it follows a standardised procedure involving the 8 episodes of the mother and stranger entering the leaving the room. THey did not collect the data for their study, instead they analysed data from other studies using a method called meta analysis. Data from 32 studies in 8 different countries was analyzed. All the 32 studies used the strange situation procedure to study attachment. Using a meta analysis statistical technique they calculated the average percentage for the different attachment styles e.

The lowest percentage of secure attachments was shown in China, and the highest in Great Britain. It was also found that Western countries that support independence such as Germany had high levels of insecure avoidant. Whereas Eastern countries that are more culturally close, such as Japan, had quite high levels of insecure resistant.

The exception to the pattern was China which an equal number of avoidant and resistant infants. One problem is that many of the studies used in the meta analysis had biased samples which cannot claim to be representative of each culture. For example, only 36 infants where used in the Chinese study which is a very small sample size for such a populated country. Also most of the studies analyzed where from Western cultures. The Strange Situation was created and tested in the USA, which means that it may be culturally biased ethnocentric , as it will reflect the norms and values of American culture. This is a problem as it assumes that attachment behavior has the same meaning in all cultures, when in fact cultural perception and understanding of behavior differ greatly.

For example, the belief that attachment is related to anxiety on separation. This may not be the case in other cultures, e. There is significant variation of attachments within cultures: Van Ijzendoorn looked at multiple studies in each country, and found that every study produced different levels of each attachment classification. This intra-cultural variation suggests that it is an over simplification to assume all children are brought up in the same way in particular country.

Bowlby originally believed the effects to be permanent and irreversible. He argued that the first 2. If the child was separated from their primary attachment figure often the mother for an extended period of time and in the absence of substitute care damage was inevitable. Affectionless psychopathy is an inability show affection or concern for others, lack of shame or sense of responsibility. Such individuals act on impulse with little regard for the consequences of their actions.

For example, showing no guilt for antisocial behavior. Bowlby was a psychoanalyst and psychiatrist, working at the London Child Guidance Clinic in the s and s. Procedure : He selected an opportunity sample of 88 children attending his clinic. Group 2- control group: 34 boys and 10 girls were referred to him because of emotional problems. The children and their parents were interviewed and tested by a psychiatrist Bowlby , a psychologist and a social worker focusing specifically on their early life experiences. Out of the 44 children in the control group, only 2 had experienced prolonged separations and none of them were affectionless psychopaths. Anca is an orphan who has been adopted by a British couple.

Before being adopted, Anca lived in an institution with lots of other children in very poor conditions. Provided by PsychLogic Revision Notes. In a study of similar children conducted by Rutter, orphans scored worse than a control group on measures of physical, social and cognitive development. Therefore, Anca may be physically and intellectually underdeveloped for her age and may show poor peer relations and disinhibited attachment - a form of insecure attachment where children do not discriminate between people to whom they try to attach to, being overly friendly, clingy and attention seeking. However, if she does form an attachment at a fairly young age these negative effects may be reversed. Children who established a foundation with a caregiver despite their biological relation, gain much needed support.

The comfort of safety, allows children to feel secure in taking risks Groman, I chose this theorist because I believe in what he thinks about attachment and one primary care giver. Generally speaking, this is one of the parents. This is the specific reason why I am in Head Start. Head Start incorporates the whole family and believes that the parent needs to be involved in the care of the children. When I think of this in the relationship to the classroom this is why I think continuity of care is so important. Observation of both the parent and their child takes place and the behaviours then related to a type of attachment.

A child with secure attachment looks at the career for comfort as well as when they are sad, unsure or not well. The child becomes upset when the carer leaves and responds with happiness when the carer returns Howe,. Unit 1. Bowlby theory says that when children come into the world they set up to form attachments with others because this will help them to develop sure relationship. Bowlby looked at how babies become attached to their mother and what happens to them when they are separated or when they feel insecure and fear, the attachment behaviours are instinctive and will be activated by any circumstances that seem to threaten for the child.

Bowlby also assumed. Through factors such as cognitive development of the infant, attentive care and intimate interactions with a primary caregiver, the attachment relationship is created — shaping the infants- caregiver bond. By examining the interactions between an infant and their primary caregiver, we can identify secure, insecure and disorganized attachment Ainsworth, ; Cassidy ; which can reveal a great deal about the relationship between the infant and attachment figure.

The motivational psychology researchers discovered several useful approaches and practices that can be implemented in the classroom for effective learning to take place Miller, Teachers are using differentiation to support teaching and learning. Differentiation can vary in pace, activities, resources, teaching and learning styles in an attempt to best meet the needs of individual student. Various teaching strategies such as cooperative learning, active learning, role play and games and pedagogic tools are being integrated in educational theories in meaningful and useful ways to encourage task or learning achievements.

Not only is this program helping provide a safe place for children who are being put in foster care homes, but it is also providing training for the parents who are choosing to foster care these children. This can help the parents understand what these children are going through and to help them realize this is not easy for them. The parents are then able to relate to the foster care children on a different level and this can help them in the long run once they age out. If the foster care children are being placed in loving and nurturing homes who teach them how to live and survive once they get out of foster care, that can really help the children so they may not end up homeless or living paycheck to paycheck once they age out.

This is why the Federal Foster Care.

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